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Something Is WRONG WHEN I CANNOT COPY IN VISUAL MODE AND MY BLOG TIME IS SEVEN HOURS OFF

http://wp.me/p31yYm-cI
IS THIS FEDERAL GOVERNMENT OR MAFIA HACKER SUPPRESSION?

I HAVE TO GO BACK TO MSC SOUTH SOON.  I JUST WANTED TO GET A MESSED UP COPY FROM TRYING TO USE VISUAL MODE WHEN I AM COPYING UP IN ONE WEBSITE AT LEAST.

I HAD TO BACK MY PUBLISH TIME 7 HOURS TO GET THE RIGHT TIME.

THE BELOW SHOULD LOOK LIKE THE BLOG ON ACALL4JUSTIFIABLEREVOLUTION.WORDPRESS.COM—>

I AM GOING TO PUT THIS MATERIAL ON AT LEAST A DOZEN OF OUR WEBSITES AS BOTH A BLOG AND A WEB PAGE BEGINNING TOMORROW AS MUCH INTERFERENCE AS I AM GETTING WORKING WITH THIS—> TRUTHFUL FREE FORM AMINO ACID HEALING KNOWLEDGE BECOMING COMMONLY KNOWN WOULD TOPPLE BOTH BIG PHARMA AND THE U.S. GOVERNMENT (3-24-14)


http://wp.me/p2oNvA-w6

Truthful Free Form Amino Acid Healing Knowledge Becoming Commonly Known Would Topple Both Big Pharma And The U.S. Government (3-24-14)

http://acall4justifiablerevolution.wordpress.com/2014/03/24/truthful-free-form-amino-acid-healing-knowledge-becoming-commonly-known-would-topple-both-big-pharma-and-the-u-s-government-3-24-14/

GOOGLE’S HEADQUARTERS ARE ONLY MILES AWAY FROM THE FREE FORM AMINO ACID SUPPLIER MY ALTERNATIVE MEDICAL DISCOVERIES WERE BASED ON.

My Free Form Amino Acid Source of Record is JoMarLabs in Campbell, California, not far from Mountain View.

This is the Only Supplier in the United States where one can buy the two amino acid blends that I used extensively for years.

JoMar is considered an amino acid wholesaler, but they sell to the public as well.

I have visited JoMar Labs three or four times over the years. In speaking to their employees, I was told that they buy free form amino acids in barrels from Japan, and then they encapsulate it and sell it here.

Years ago their amino acid blends did not contain any magnesium stearate, and was something like 99.7% pure.

I was disappointed to see magnesium stearate added to the free form amino acid blends that I regularly used, but there was nothing I could do about this, unless I ordered a custom blend (to my specifications) from JoMar. This latter I never bothered to do, as from memory it would have cost me more and there was a minimum quantity required that was fiscally troublesome for me. I simply accepted the magnesium stearate being added to the blends that I ordered, because their was not much I could do about it. Magnesium stearate helps with the encapsulation process, it is not being used as a preservative, to the best of my knowledge.

Free form amino acids are quite stable, and can take substantial heat. If I left my amino acid supply in the car for a long time on a sunny summer day with the windows closed, it was fine (unlike vitamin B-complex and vitamin C, which were damaged by the high heat). Frigid winter temperatures did not matter either. I never had a problem with amino acids going bad due to chemical degradation, as best as I could tell.

Unfortunately, I cannot order anything from Jomar Laboratories, due to an unpaid bill that went to collection years ago.

I used to be “on open account” on a net 10 or 30 basis.

For years Jomar put up with me being really late in paying, but would ship when I finally paid my old bill.

When the Mafia first tried to kill me in January 2010, I talked them into shipping me a two kilogram order, even though I owed them for two kilograms already.

Then I ended up in my first bunker apartment in Kennedy Plaza, and there was no way I could pay the bill.

So I was sent to collection for about $700 or $800.

What really concerned me was a remark on the phone by a Jomar employee, the one in charge there at the time. (I know the name, but I am not going to write it here.)

She said, “Even if you pay your bill, we don’t know if we are going to sell to you anymore”.

Jomar had no sales budget for years. They sold by word of mouth.

I had been an unpaid word of mouth promoter on the Internet of Jomar’s products for years.

I did not expect payment for this, nor did I want it, and I would have refused it if it was offered.

By conscious choice, I did have, nor would not have, any commercial agenda contaminate what I was trying to tell the world.

However, when Jomar told me they might not sell to me, and told me this in an ominous tone that suggested I could not longer get what I needed from them, I lost all motivation to pay them what I owed them.

I needed what I got from SSD to simply survive being under attack by Big Pharma’s enforcement arm, the American Mafia headquartered in NYC.

My last order with Jomar was in February 2010 or so, soon after my first hit attempt.

My second hit attempt, one that was multiple in nature, occurred beginning in late May 2010, after I wrote a blog titled “A Tribute To Bob Beck; A World Class Healer (5-21-2010). After the second time that the Mafia tried to kill me, there was no way I was paying out any money to anyone if it did not do me “any survival good”. This included JoMarLabs and the collection agency they sent my old bills to.

I was luckily gifted most of a kilogram of each blend by a person in Texas in October of 2010.

It was upon this Free Form Amino Acid and other supplement gift that “Cambridge Who’s Who and a Synopsis of My Situation” and “The Story of Darman Mfg. Company and Genius” were written back to back on October 12th and 13th of 2010.

It was upon this FFAA, etc. gift that I wrote for as much as I could, as fast as I could, to tell the world all that I knew about natural cures for the balance of October and the first part of November 2010, until I left for Texas and then AZ. where the Mafia tried determinedly to kill me again in April 2011.

It has been about three and a half years since I have had any access whatsoever to Jomar Laboratories blended amino acid product line.

Other things being more or less equal, no human being on this earth not taking broad based (broad spectrum) FFAA’s and other synergistic supplements Can Compete Mentally Or Physically with someone who is taking such, and knows what they are doing. Not a single one. (It would be impossible.)

I used to order JoMarLab’s Pure Form 20 (now 21) Blend and WAC blend in capsules by the kilogram.

Two kilograms (1 of each) of free form amino acids years ago costs me about $270.

It’s been so long, I forget.

It was definitely under $300.

If I could get my hands on two uncontaminated and properly formulated kilograms of this stuff (Pureform and WAC), along with some other necessary supplements for it to work, Oh My God what I could do with it on a rather immediate basis in regard to “helping my ability to think and function”, and in regard to “helping my own physical and mental health”.

I’d be taking 50 grams of FFAA’s a day right off the bat, which equates to 100 500 mg. capsules.

For some persons 50 grams of FFAA supplementation may be, or is, too much. For me, it is not.

Only the person taking FFAA’s can determine their own proper dosage. No doctor in the world can do this for you.

Experienced people like myself could guide someone and save them a ton of time learning curve-wise in regard to successfully applying FFAA’s to themselves.

This knowledge “all needs to be put on video”, the sooner the better.

What a gift to the world it would be!

I could commence this project tomorrow, even without any FFAA supplementation, if either WordPress or Google would help me with “a roof over my head”, and a place to talk to the camera in my iMac, or any other camera that was supplied.

I know FFAA’s by heart. I need no book to refer to in order to create useful video material, for I have learned more than the books say.

All I need is a place to talk, and a friendly face around somewhere.

I thought when Google went for 51% of iROCKiFREEDOM on February 8th that I would find such here this time.

Apparently, either something happened out here to scare people off, or I thought wrong.

I just can’t see using the last of my money to try to make it to Mountain View as a homeless person in dirty clothes dragging my iMac in a suitcase on wheels and expect anything good to come out of this.

I have told Google “I am a Special Needs Hire” due to the fact I need a Safe Environment in Which to Work.

I am a tough cookie.

I can deal with rejection this time, just as I have dealt with it a number of times that I came to San Francisco before.

My faith in God and my Clear Conscience that “I did my part” supports me.

What else can I say? in the above regards.

Going back to free form amino acids–>

FFAA’s, when used properly, offer more hope to save this planet and ourselves from self destruction than anything I can think of, they mean “that much”.

FFAA’s applied to depression or even “just generally applied to normal people” could easily generate “a molecular awareness” in humanity that is critical to saving this planet from the molecular destruction we are heaping upon it now.

Willy’s Baggie, the one we used the most by far, contained less than 14 grams of Free Form Amino acids.

For comparison–> Two eggs contains about 14 grams of protein. Protein is 100% amino acids.

However, in protein the amino acid molecules are combined with each other by the hundreds or by the thousands.

Unless these molecular bonds are broken by enzymatic action, the amino acid molecules in protein are not absorbed into the body because—> i

In being linked together “they are far too large” to be absorbed.

Even if amino acids linked together were absorbed, they would be useless to the body if still combined in large molecules.

Your digestive system is supposed to disassemble protein molecules into peptides or di-peptides, which are one molecule and two molecule groups.

These peptides and di-peptides are then transported to and assembled into “what you need” inside your body and brain.

1) Protein digestion and assimilation into the body are often impaired.

2) The same goes for minerals too, as far as assimilation into the body goes.

3) Much of what many people eat nutrition-wise is pooped into the toilet the next day.

4) For some this problem is worse than for others.

The above four sentences are WHERE EVERY MENTAL HEALTH and DEGENERATIVE HEALTH RESEARCH DOLLAR IN AMERICA SHOULD GO, ALONG WITH A THOROUGH STUDY OF “DIGESTIVE EFFICIENCY” AND EVERYTHING RELATED TO SUCH (Hidden Food Allergies, Poor Gut Flora, a Lack of Digestive Enzymes, a Lack of the Essential Nutrients that Build Such, Leaky Gut, etc.).

UNFORTUNATELY, research dollars will never be spent on such, for in America by Law “Only a Drug Can Diagnose, Prevent, Treat, or Cure Any and All Disease”.

This Single Silly, Illogical And Criminal Law of “Only a Drug Can Cure” DOOMS AMERICAN HEALTH AND WEALTH, and perhaps MEANS THE END of the World (may lead to nuclear war someday), IF IT REMAINS IN PLACE.

We have a Absolute and God Given Human Right to Accurate Truths about how our body works, what it needs to function properly, and how to correct our own health when it is impaired.

Unfortunately, the big question in regard to FFAA’s is “Was my single source for such named JoMar Laboratories leaned on by the American Mafia, such that one cannot get what I used to get FFAA-wise”, or are certain orders are intentionally mis-formulated to not work like they should.

JoMarLabs

Call Toll Free 800.538.4545
ABOUT US
QUALITY
GUARANTEE
CONTACT
Amino Acids

AMINO ACIDS
Formulas

FORMULAS
Books Etc.

BOOKS ETC.
The book shown above is Robert Erdmann’s “The Amino Revolution” copyrighted in 1987. I deeply appreciate what Robert Erdmann, PhD. taught me. This book helped me a lot, despite the fact it did not list dosages, and the facts that (1) Robert Erdmann missed taurine as a key inhibitory amino acid, and (2) his understanding of how to use broad spectrum amino acids is flawed (Willy’s Baggie is better than what Robert Erdmann knew). Despite these flaws, Robert Erdmann was considered an expert in amino acid supplementation worldwide in his time. Sweden granted him some sort of award for “what he did, and what he knew”. For Robert Erdmann, histidine was the amino acid he often relied on for inhibition. Finally I tried histidine, and Yes! it does help. My three best inhibitors free form amino acid wise are tryptophan, taurine and histidine. These three in combination are as powerful as a benzodiazapine medication such as klonopin for me. Due to fiscal shortfall, I no longer use histidine, but I often have and use tryptophan and taurine on an “as needed basis”. These two in 3,500 mg. each amounts were enough to get me to sleep after working 150 hours for the first week of February. I knew with a 100% degree of certainty that they would be enough to make me sleep before I pushed myself this hard. This 3,500 MG. EA. dosage is unusually high – I DO NOT RECOMMEND IT FOR OTHERS AND YOU COULD GET A HECK OF A HEADACHE FROM TOO MUCH TAURINE, as well as feel groggy and out of it from too much tryptophan taken at once. (NORMAL DOSAGES ARE IN THE 1,000 MG. TO 1,500 MG. EACH RANGE.) I can only dose myself so high safely without negative side effects because I KNOW WHAT I AM DOING FOR MY BODY, MY BRAIN, AND ME. I have witnessed inhibitory amino acids working well for other people IN REGARD TO GREATLY HELPING WITH SLEEP PROBLEMS. SLEEP MEDICATION IS ANOTHER HOAX; it is another fraud being perpetuated on the American Public for the sake of the money. It is worthy to note that tryptophan is excitatory for some people, and inhibitory for others. Tryptophan is the amino acid precursor of serotonin. Taking tryptophan with B-Complex and C increases one’s serotonin level, something I learned from Dr. Priscilla Slagle in her book “The Way Up From Down”, and experienced thousands of times from supplementing with it personally. How SSRI antidepressants are even on the market when the amino acid tryptophan and a few vitamins so readily increases serotonin in a person is a testament to the Power of the Drug Oriented Medical System and U.S. Government Policies (laws) here in the United States. It is also worthy to note here that a San Francisco Bay Area (Mill Valley) medical practitioner named Julia Ross is extremely likely to have plagiarized my initial inhibitory amino acid combination of Tryptophan, Taurine, GABA and Glycine. I emailed her something like a 30 page Word document in February 1998 documenting all that I was doing amino acid wise, shortly after I attended a week long seminar in San Rafael, California in January 1998. Her book “The Mood Cure” suggesting the same amino acid cocktail I was using was published in 2002. IMHO, Julia Ross became “the expert in Amino Acid Use” in Alternative Medicine for a while, based on my amino acid advice. However, she still got stuck in regard to excitatory amino acid use, and continued to recommend a obsolete tyrosine and phenylalanine combination that Dr. Priscilla Slagle had recommended way back in 1987. As a result of self-experimentation and a lot of trial and error, I surpassed everyone mentioned here in regard to the therapeutic use of free form amino acids 14 years ago for both inhibitory or excitatory use, even before Willy’s Baggie was born. Lastly, it sure smacks of Suppression to me when I ordered every book I could get my hands on on this topic of free form amino acids in 1998, and the library I created was only about 8″ wide, despite the fact “we humans are made out of this stuff more than anything else”. It could justifiably be stated that “human beings are amino acid chemical machines”. This is the last thing in the world that Big Pharma and the U.S. Government want people to know about, for both would fall to free form amino acid truths if they became commonly known. I am having multiple and very unusual computer problems today as I worked on this blog. To me, this is no surprise. Free Form Amino Acid knowledge is “a huge great to the eugenics folks, the U.S. Government, and Big Pharma too”. Robert Erdmann died in a hospital in 2002, and Bob Beck died the same year from a fall (supposedly). It would not surprise me if both of these gentleman were secretively killed. My longevity here is “a dice game”. I take things day by day, and live without fear, for I know my death will be meaningful, should it occur.

Free form amino acids (FFAA’s) and “amino acids” as listed on most labels one would typically see, are two different animals altogether.

All of my discoveries used free form amino acids.

None of them used amino acids that were not Free Form.

As I type these words with partially impaired fingers, I think about what free form amino acids, carnitine, and other supplements could do for me.

[It is worthy to note here that in September 1997, when I first started to use a wide range of nutritional supplements, probiotics, etc. I used to often spontaneously want to wiggle my fingers while laying in bed. My finger function had been somewhat impaired for years due to deficiency, an impairment that is getting progressively worse at present. In 1997, I could not shuffle a deck of cards my whole life. People used to make fun of me at the poker table when it was my turn to deal, for I would just mash the cards together. Suddenly I could shuffle a deck of cards in September 1997, as a result of treating essential nutrient deficiency in myself. My fingers used to dance over the keyboard much better than they do now. All of my current finger impairment is “easily recoverable function”, if the nutrient deficiencies in my fingers and finger joints was finally properly addressed. I know how to do this, but I have a “means problem” that has dogged me for years.]

FFAA’s could, with other things in combination, completely heal my fingers in a matter of weeks, with great relief being felt within a matter of days.

FFAA’s, with carnitine, phosphatidyl choline, and a good multivitamin (or even just B Complex and Vitamin C) could change my brain function and performance profoundly within the same day, relief that is felt within hours, or even in the first hour, depending.

FFAA’s, along with other common sense things, can quite literally turn back the hands of time.

You can feel, act, and function as if you were much younger, if you know how to address nutrient deficiency, excess toxic and allergic load, malabsorption and “bad biology” in yourself.

FFAA’s, taken along with needed vitamin and mineral cofactors, are “rocket fuel for the brain”. I have used this phrase hundreds of times over the years because it seemed to best describe what one feels from taking such. You can think better, faster and longer as a result of FFAA supplementation, because you are giving your brain the raw material it needs to readily build neurotransmitters. Dr. Priscilla Slagle, a conventional psychiatrist that went alternative decades ago, and a pioneer in the field, calls this “precursor loading” in her landmark book “The Way Up From Down” published in 1987.

All of what I am writing about here can all be readily learned, and readily taught, via YouTube.

I told alternative medical practitioners the above repeatedly a decade ago.

The problem here is that what I know disenfranchises alternative medical practitioners as well. If healing knowledge can be found for free on YouTube, why go see an alternative doctor and pay them for knowledge that one can learn for free via the Power of the Internet?

My first personal computer was a Radio Shack computer with 16K RAM that I purchased in 1982, and upgraded to 48K RAM (it’s maximum RAM) on the kitchen table at home by plugging in two chips. I knew computers were going to change the world a long time ago. Now, I am not so certain, due to concerns over what our Federal Government is doing, and what it wants to do in the future. If Silicon Valley does not recognize this threat of Coming Government Internet Censorship and do something about it, the Power of Personal Computers may never reach its true potential.

I knew, and fully understood, the Power and Potential of Personal Computers in 1987, when I designed a number of accounting templates on Lotus 123 in which to run the accounting end of the manufacturing business I owned at that time. (An Excel Version of the Cash Disbursements Ledger that I designed in 1987 is still in regular use by Darman Mfg. Company today.)

Although admirable in its intent, eight Silicon Valley companies jointly taking out a full page ad in the New York Times addressed to the politicians in Washington D.C. (as happened on DEC 9/13) is not going to solve the problem.

I have no doubt that the Federal Government will continue to monitor all of the Internet and Telephone traffic that it possibly can, and will do so until it falls to a Justifiable Revolution.

I would like to venture the guess that Silicon Valley Companies and employees are a Special Target of Government Surveillance, because of the fact that Silicon Valley and the Internet are the two biggest threats to our current Federal Government remaining in power.

The Slow but Steady Growth of Truth on the Internet, and the Slow But Steady Growth of the Patriot Movement in America are a far bigger threat to our current federal government than anything else. This means “they will continue to listen to you folks in Silicon Valley”. As stupid as our Federal Government is about a lot of things, they are not stupid enough to “not be listening to you” if you work in Silicon Valley in any capacity related to the Internet.

Appealing to the morality of politicians is pointless. Politicians are working for their own self interest. Moral Right means nothing to these folks. Not one politician talks about 9/11 TRUTH. That should tell you something, if not a lot of things.

America is Lost if our current system remains in place. There is too much money in politics. If you get elected as a Senator or Congress Person, you become entrapped by the need to seek reelection money from corporate and special interest donors. This leads to legislative favor towards those paying for your reelection. The welfare of the people does not count any more. It’s the welfare of those giving away money in Washington via 17,000 lobbyists that counts today.

I certainly hope that an iROCK4iFREEDOM event is being planned now, and will happen this summer. I also hope that this event does not just deal with Internet Freedom, but deals with the Suppression of Truth by the U.S. Government in a broader sense as well.

These issues of Internet Freedom and the Suppression of Truth by the U.S. Government are interrelated. To only deal with one of them such as Internet Freedom is really missing the boat, and will most likely achieve very limited results.

To understand the true nature of the Federal Government in America, one only has to look at the Suppression of Truth in Three Key Areas–> Energy Invention Suppression, the Suppression of Alternative Medicine, and the Suppression of 9/11 Truth.

In regard to the Suppression of Alternative Medicine, I can Prove What I Know, if given the means to do so.

So little could do so much.

A sum of money as little as $5 spend wisely on nutritional supplementation that I suggest could improve the health and performance of every single employee at Google, or every single employee anywhere in America.

Admittedly, $10 or $12 would be even better, but even $5 a day could do a lot.

Willy’s Original Baggie cost about $12. ea. years ago, a price that I do not think has changed much, and even one taken every other day as Willy often took them greatly helps. This simple discovery that copied the wisdom of pioneer nutritionist Adelle Davis toppled drug oriented medicine in much of what it treats–> so much so I would hate to be a major stockholder in a drug company if the Truth ever became known. Nutrients cure. Drugs don’t. No toxic molecule can truly beget human health, and all drugs are toxic, every single one.

The performance gains at work would easily offset the cost of well designed nutritional supplementation, especially amongst Google’s (or another company’s) Executives, but also amongst almost every single employee at Google over 40 as well (if not every single employee period).

If I go beyond just nutritional supplementation and apply the entire range of alternative medical common sense to myself, I can feel and function like I was in my 30′s within a week (or perhaps two). This assumes I had access to the supplement, nutritional, and natural measures to do so. and a place in which to apply such. One notable exception to what I am representing here is–>

My lungs would still be impaired from all the cigarettes that I smoked in my life.

Regardless of my lungs, I would still feel like a much younger man. and amazingly so, if I had the means and the place to apply alternative medicine to myself.

What I am doing to myself is Profoundly Anti-Aging.

In Principle, what I am doing to myself to gain, retain or recovery health and function is Applicable to the Entire Human Race.

When I become chemically optimal using “what I know”, and have known for well over a decade, I reach a natural high that is better than getting high smoking weed. It is a really special place to be “a (bio)chemical 10″ on a scale of 1 to 10. I am more at peace and have more inner happiness than the Dalai Lama has when I am chemically well. Or “we are equals” in these regards.

I would love to teach the above to Google, WordPress, Silicon Valley and the World.

I pray that someday I am wisely granted the means to adequately “YouTube teach” what I know to be True About Depression, Health and Health Recovery to America and to the World.

God Forbid My Discovery Knowledge is lost.

What a Shame this would be.

The significance of what I know is much bigger than “the water powered car”, or even the Invention of the Internet and Computers, for it relates directly to Human and Planetary Health.

As one example of what I know about how to properly treat a state of severe depression in a hospital setting (or even from home), the first steps in treating a severely depressed state should ALWAYS BE to (1) remove GI Tract contents as much as is practical or possible “from both ends” by (1a) a Colonic or a Series of Colonics, and (1b) Bentonite and Psyllium shakes, and (2) the Oral Administration of High Dosage Free Form Amino Acids (50 to 100 grams or so, depending), along with a wide range of needed co-factors, as specified in other material that I have written over the years. Step number three would always be “whatever it takes to fix one’s gut biology”. (See Dr. Sherry Rogers Book “No More Heartburn” and her 8R program of gut correction for a decent outline.) Step number four would be to go on a cave man elimination diet to deal with the probable problem of hidden food allergies. These four steps are universal to the proper treatment of a state of severe, chronic and/or longstanding depression.

In the great majority of people, a state of severe depression with suicidal ideation attached is “excessive toxic gut contents causing a serious degree of malabsorption and burdening the body with a high toxic load” combined with “a functional amino acid deficiency state” more than it is ANYTHING ELSE. (I knew this stuff 14 years ago. Nothing has changed. My knowledge has only solidified over time as I learned more.)

It’s quite an interesting experience watching your body heal, as the result of taking a wide range of nutritional supplements, drinking raw vegetable juice and non-allergic green shakes, changing your gut biology, and eliminating hidden allergic foods.

FFAA’s are the majority of what all of your neurotransmitters, hormones, and enzymes are made out of.

Dried out (all the water taken out), an average human being is 70% amino acids, 20% fats, and 5% minerals. That’s 95% of what you are chemically.

Vitamins and minerals are essential to heal from any deficiency syndrome, but they are the minority of the equation.

FFAA’s are the bulk of the equation. (From my personally taking over 150,000 capsules of individual and blended free form amino acids personally since September 1997, I know what I am talking about.)

In regard to neurotransmitters, science admits it has identified roughly 100 of them. By identified, they must mean that they know the molecule structure of such.

All of this molecular biological science is being suppressed. Try to find the molecular diagrams of these 100 known neurotransmitters and their names. (Good luck.)

At least the molecular science underlying serotonin and dopamine is not suppressed. From this we can conclude that most neurotransmitters are made primarily out of amino acids, and that a mineral molecule or a vitamin molecule may be needed in their production. (Electron microscopes can see this stuff.)

The notable exception to the above is a major neurotransmitter called acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine is made from choline, which is typically grouped with the B vitamin family.

From a great deal of experience, I know for a fact that l-carnitine is somehow involved in acetylcholine production, for when lacking it, phosphatidyl choline supplementation does me no good.

L-Carnitine itself needs something like eight essential nutrients in order to be formed in the body. (The specifics of this is known by science – I saw the list in a book once.)

A lack of any one of these eight essential nutrients means a lack of l-carnitine production inside of the body.

L-Carnitine does more than simply transport fats across the cell membrane, which is one function commonly associated with it.

An adequate supply of Carnitine is essential to optimal mental health.

Without it, my brain can race (hypomania).

With carnitine and enough phoshatidyl choline, I can “practically dial my brain speed (my spontaneous rate of neuronal firing) to anywhere I want” given a little time.

People that talk loud and fast are carnitine deficient (this I know for a fact), and perhaps choline deficient too.

If you are so deficient, strongly suspect broad based (broad spectrum) deficiency and a serious degree of malabsorption are present.

It’s really a no brainer to figure this stuff out.

It’s so simple, its scary what modern medicine is doing, and continues to do.

There is Absolutely a Big Conspiracy to hide the truth about essential nutrients from all Americans, if not all People the World Over.

Essential nutrient deficiencies are rampant in America, and they are only getting worse, thanks to chlorinated water, GMO foods, food additives, processed foods, and kids getting slammed with repeated rounds of antibiotics for ear infections, etc. when they are young.

It is in Big Pharma’s best interest to make us all a little or a lot sick, as much as they can get away with and not get caught. (I strongly suspect Big Pharma is allied with the Eugenics folks that want to kill off over 6.5 billion of us as soon as they possible can.)

Like Joan Matthews Larson told me after I told her face to face in the summer of 2007 when I snuck out to Minneapolis to see her without an appointment and told her how hacked I was getting–>

“Your being hacked is serious, and I would not take it lightly. The roots of pharmaceutical medicine are all in Nazi Germany. Be very careful. If I was you I would go out west, where alternative medicine has progressed more than it has here. Maybe there you can get some help.”

Incidentally, when I went out to see Joan Matthews Larson in the summer of 2007 she freely gave me an hour and a half of her time. That was not enough. After we were done, we spent another hour and a half talking with her son too, whom she said “had to hear what I had just told her”. Three hours time on an unannounced walk in visit, due to Joan knowing me from my written work on the Internet. I left Minneapolis in fear that night, because my laptop got slammed by hackers in the library there, and I knew my life was at great risk. (This visit occurred two and a half years before the first hit attempt on me. I have been under the gun for some time. The odds of Silicon Valley hearing what I have to say today are less than one in one thousand, if not far worse than that. You should perhaps wisely take advantage of my stubbornness, my survival and my luck.)

The vitamins, minerals and FFAA supplements I am writing about here are the ones the FDA tried to label “as all being drugs” in early 2007.

In 2007 the FDA tried to label EVERY single nutritional and natural supplement a drug, due to my proving what supplements could do with my son Willy in June 2006. (It is no accident that this is when my chronic difficulties with hackers began.) In 2007, the FDA also tried to label even carrot juice (or other juices) a drug, if they were used therapeutically, because juicing can do so much.

The FDA also proposed to take away “by over-regulation” every nutritional supplement that came on the market after October 1994. This occurred in July 2011.

Both of these attempts by the FDA to restrict the general public’s access to nutritional and natural supplements are a matter of public record.

The two FDA Guidance Documents written in 2007 and 2011 trying to take supplements out of the general public’s hands hang our Federal Government, if the Truth Of the Matter was ever widely known.

Our Federal Government has to go. There is No Fixing It. It is Irreparably Broken, and will result in the Fall of America if it is not stopped soon.

Some say America is Doomed to Fall anyway.

I do not like such negative pessimistic thinking for it paralyzes any massive citizen action or massive Silicon Valley action in which to correct the problem.

It’s fight back Smartly and Courageously (such as I hope iROCK4iFREEDOM Represents) or Passively Put Our Heads in the Sand and Wait to Suffer and/or Die for Most Or All of Us.

The FEMA camp stuff and all the rest of what the Feds have been doing internally (NSA Surveillance of 100% of Americans 100% of the time, drones, bullets, lots of gear, SWAT vehicles, etc.) strongly suggests it is going to be the Holocaust all over again, only this time it won’t be Jews targeted, it will often be “the best and brightest in America who are Aware Of Too Much”.

American Freedom, the American Economy and the Value of the Dollar are all under attack.

Sure many here in Silicon Valley are making lots of money and leading very comfortable lives.

For how long do you think this party of things being the way they are (more or less) is going to last?

Do you think your money is going to make you immune to what is coming in America when “things fall apart” for whatever reason?

If so, I’d think again, because you came to the wrong conclusion the first time out.

Even if the millionaires and billionaires escape America before Martial Law is Declared, what about all of the Silicon Valley employees and the hundreds of millions of other Americans who did not escape?

The Internet is a Big Threat to those bringing down America, and from the standpoint of simple logic, anyone associated with the Internet and the Spreading of Truth is going to be a big target. (An EMP attack over Silicon Valley is not Out of the Question. Believe me. We are RIGHT NOW IN A WAR for the Truth on a Number of Key Topics to Be Heard. If we lose this War, the Truth about many things will likely be buried for centuries, assuming the human race survives that long without nuclear war destroying us all.)

My past problems with the Mafia are extremely small potatoes compared to what I am trying to tell you people.

I’d be quite surprised if we make it until the election in 2016 without things in America falling apart.

Even if we make it this far, there is no way in hell the value of the dollar is going to hold up until 2020.

And when the dollar falls, Martial Law and Federal Control of the Internet are a given.

When the above happens, Freedom in America will be perhaps permanently dead.

Without the Internet to communicate with, dissenters and activists like me and hundreds of thousands, if not millions of other persons of similar thought, will be slaughtered at will in all the FEMA Death Camps the Feds secretly built. (It is going to be Nazi Germany Times Ten.)

This is Not a Game.

It is “As Real Life as Real Life gets”.

You people in Silicon Valley are Smart.

Figure it out, if you have not done so already.

If key decision makers at Google or in Silicon Valley ever learned in a personal sense (by taking such) what I know to be true about FFAA’s, and the therapeutic use of nutritional supplements in general, THEY WOULD Absolutely GO TO WAR with our Federal Government.

They would go to war due to Obvious and Documentable Federal Government Suppression of the therapeutic power and therapeutic usefulness of FFAA’s and other natural curative measures in order to achieve, maintain or recover human health.

Another thought that may be of use here is that “the world’s food supply could easily double, if what I know was developed in any meaningful sense”.

WAC Blend from Jomar does increase blood pressure, and perhaps can be problematic for some people that have high blood pressure. (Incidentally, high blood pressure is resolvable naturally. See Dr. Sherry Roger’s book “The High Blood Pressure Hoax” at http://www.prestigepublishing.com.)

Research could easily come up with a better blend of free form amino acids than I am using, and do so in short order. (I would love to be a part of this.)

Carnitine and phosphatidyl choline are an absolute must at the FFAA dosages mentioned above, or you will likely get a headache.

Acetylcholine acts as a necessary buffer for free form amino acids in the brain.

L-Carnitine (or acetyl l-carnitine) and phosphatidyl choline supplementation, in addition to other things, noticeably and definitely increases the acetylcholine level in the brain. In doing so, it avoids any headache one might get from free form amino acid supplementation. (This same combination of nutrients often readily revolves a headache from other causes as well. PC alone is often enough. I consider PC to be better than aspirin for most.)

I used to take 500 to 1000 mg. of carnitine, and three phosphatidyl choline capsules containing about 420 mg. of actual phosphatidyl choline. (I took three capsules of PC because my own brain told me 1 or 2 was not enough.)

The brain and body runs on this stuff, and on fats and sugars too.

I use fats and sugars to fuel brain performance now, because I cannot get free form amino acids.

It was the use of fats, a stomach acid supplements that I sorely needed, and a good multivitamin that allowed me to do what I did in February 2014 with WordPress.

FFAA’s are AWESOME in their healing potential, both mentally an physically.

Big Pharma, drug oriented medicine as a whole, and our Federal Government, which fully supports by mandate and by law the fraud of drug oriented medicine, has to be deathly afraid of the true therapeutic power of Free Form Amino Acids and other natural measures being discovered by the masses.

Many people can achieve profound relief from depression within a hour or two.

You cannot have any real idea what free form amino acids can do, UNLESS YOU HAVE PERSONALLY EXPERIENCED SUCH.

Have you ever felt burnt out at the end of the week from all of the mental work that you did that week?

This burned out feeling is A DIRECT RESULT OF A TEMPORARY FUNCTIONAL DEFICIENCY OF FREE FORM AMINO ACIDS AND OTHER ESSENTIAL NUTRIENTS.

I can actually read such a temporary deficiency “in a person’s aura and in their face”. Deficiency such as this “shows” in other persons, just like it does it me.

Digestive enzyme supplementation (even high dosage supplementation) at mealtimes can be very helpful in regard to treating a temporary state of deficiency, but it cannot compete with FFAA’s in a therapeutic sense.

They (almost certainly the Mafia ON BEHALF OF BIG PHARMA) made Eric Braverman, M.D. UN-WRITE HIS BOOK ”The Healing Nutrients Within” about amino acids until it contained “nothing of value”.

A thick book chock full of useful and insightful information on Free Form Amino Acids turned into “a much smaller book that is a piece of garbage”. That is how much of a threat free form amino acids are to drug oriented medicine.

I told Joan Matthews Larson (who considered the leader of the treatment of alcoholism in alternative medicine) back in the summer of 2007, “if the antidepressant class of medicines falls to the TRUTH, the whole house of cards of drug oriented medicine will topple soon thereafter”. She immediately agreed because she knows “I know what I am talking about”, and “she knows, or has a very solid sense, of what nutritional supplements can do”. (Joan offered me a consulting job numerous times in the summer of 2004, but I could not leave taking care of my mother, who had just lost her ability to walk, and died about nine months later. Later Joan offered me a full time job, but I was being heavily hacked no matter what computer I used and on the run at this point, and I thought it wise to decline.)

To the wise folks here in San Francisco and Silicon Valley–>

Give me some safety, and some FFAA’s from Jomar, and the rest of what I need to “cure myself” and “turn back the hands of time” for myself.

Then Watch What Happens, and Film Me.

If you see this, you will know the Truth.

I Can Prove TO THE WORLD What I Know, if given the means to do so. (I have said this so many times over the years, it’s not funny.)

If Jomar’s stuff is formulated to not work, I will know.

If Jomar’s stuff is contaminated with something bad whose affect may be unnoticeable but is cumulative and harmful to my health, I am certainly willing to take that chance.

This story about Jomar Labs is one of a number of reasons it is wisest to become Partners with the Mafia, rather than fight them.

If you go up against the America Mafia, there are too many ways they can beat you.

The Mafia can make so many people do whatever they tell them to, and keep their mouth shut.

For the Mafia to go to Jomar and talk to their key people in secret, and in doing so “mess up baggies” for the rest of us is “a piece of cake for them”. (I am not saying this happened, or that I have any proof whatsoever of this. I am saying there was an enormously strong motivation to “mess up baggies so they did not work”, and that the Mafia could have easily made this happen by leaning on some Jomar Folks.)

Mafia force needs to be redirected towards “corrupt government officials”, “corrupt corporate officials”, and “all of the people who gained so much fiscally from all of the lies and subterfuge forced for decades upon us”.

If you can’t beat them join them, is what I am trying to convince Silicon Valley, the Mafia, and the Patriot Movement all at once.

The Mafia is not the biggest evil here, or even close.

They can be a Force for Great Good if they wanted to be, or were fiscally motivated to be–> which are more or less the same. (Money talks, and bullshit walks is the Street phrase that applies here.)

The two mid-level Mafia fellows from Kansas City I met in Des Moines IA in OCT 2012 were both on my side after talking at some length, but their higher ups they met in downtown Des Moines at a meeting they attended went against them, and they were ordered to proceed with the hit against me.

Today, it would be a different story, I think.

The American Mafia has passed on many opportunities to take me out in the past year, Thank God.

If they did not pass on these opportunities, I would most probably be dead.

This has to mean something that they backed off trying to kill me.

Perhaps they are held in check by Google’s and Silicon Valley’s Awareness of me, and they still want me dead.

Or perhaps they are waiting to see what happens between the Patriot Movement, Silicon Valley, and the Feds. (To me, this is their wisest choice. No one wants to be on the losing side of “the war we are in”.)

Despite the silence of the Mafia (they will not talk to me, despite being given multiple opportunities), I have to believe that these fellows want me to win, and to set up the deal I am proposing with Silicon Valley and the Patriot Movement, and have been proposing for some time.

If such is the case, there is no reason whatsoever for people here to fear helping me.

I personally am not afraid of the Mafia at all.

It’s the Feds that concern me, but even them I have No Fear Of Either.

Not here.

Not Anywhere really–> as long as “if I am killed, even in a sneaky way, the Smart Folks here will see through this staged event and know what really happened to me”.

Conclusions

Much of What is being stated in this blog involves Universal Truths that should be taught in high school to the entire human race.

All of this basic health knowledge that we have a human right to is currently being Federal Government, Big Pharma and Mafia Suppressed.

It is worthy to note that the American Mafia may “Switch Sides” and allow TRUTH IN HEALTHCARE TO HAPPEN.

The American Mafia may be Open to A Better Answer than what we are doing at present Healthcare-wise and Otherwise in America, as long as this answer does not cost the Mafia any money, or makes them more than they are making now.

If Silicon Valley Keeps This In Mind, things at a negotiating table should work out.

I do not blame the American Mafia at all for Big Pharma’s and Our Federal Government’s Myriad of Lies Regarding Healthcare. They are simply the paid enforcer of such.

However, if the American Mafia does not “Switch Sides”, and They Stay With–>

Enforcing the Lies By Acting as MURDER, Inc. >>>Killing ANY AND ALL DISCOVERERS<<< that threaten Corporate America (Big Pharma, Big Oil, Big Nuclear, etc.)–>

At least in my life I have exposed the Mafia FOR WHAT THEY ARE AND WHAT THEY ARE DOING IN AMERICA NOW, AND HAVE BEEN DOING FOR QUITE SOME TIME–>

Such that the Smart Folks Out Here know what needs to happen After an Inevitable Patriot Revolution succeeds.

I sincerely hope the Mafia gets Smart SOON and Makes the Right Decision TO SWITCH SIDES BEFORE any Internet Woodstock Event.

I also hope that Silicon Valley is reasonable and at some point negotiates a Win-Win-Win Deal with them for the Sake of the Future of America.

Live or Die, I Feel Deeply Honored to Have Been Involved In A Critically Meaningful Way in an Effort To Save America, Humanity and the World.

I accept my Destiny, whatever it may be.

It would be Wise For Silicon Valley to Extract All of the Knowledge Value that it can from me while I am still here to tell this knowledge to you.

To Google–> The ball is in your court.

WordPress (Automattic) is too small and vulnerable to help me more than they are doing now it seems.

If they were not too small and vulnerable, the people involved with WordPress that are anonymously helping me online would have picked me up when I arrived here.

I am here to stay this time.

I am staying here in the Greater San Francisco Bay Area until Google and Silicon Valley either help me to help America and the world, or–>

I die from either natural or unnatural causes.

I cannot do the job God gave me on the means that I have, or do it alone.

Given the means and adequate support, I Can, and I Most Certainly Will, Change this World for the Better.

As Valuable as I am to a Justifiable Revolution in America due “Not to Who I Am” but to “What I Know”, I am a bit surprised at being abandoned here again. This time I am not depressed, just surprised and a bit baffled as to “Why?” and/or “What Went Wrong?”.

Lastly, The Truth is the Truth, regardless of the lowly stature, the looks, the means or the eccentricities of its purveyor.

Allen Darman with critical and heroic help from Mark Jaquith of CoveredWebServices.com and some critical and heroic help from some anonymous WordPress People Out Here

************

For some reason I cannot copy things in the Visual Mode today. I have to go to text mode to get a proper copy of the material above.

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This Blog is Under Construction until March 15, 2014.

What follows in the material below is a list of

69 PATRIOT/Movement/Educational,

Internet.Woodstock/Informational,

Federal Government Suppression Revealing,

WordPress/INTERNET/MANAGEMENT, And/Or

REVOLUTIONARY WordPress Websites Supporting

The 1st Internet Woodstock And

A Justifiable Revolution In America.

These are 69 PATRIOT REVOLUTION Or RELATED WEBSITES That Some HEROIC WordPress WEBSITE DEVELOPERS HAVE CREATED 4 AMERICA, 4 THE WORLD And 4 YOU!

SIXTY NINE (69) PATRIOT REVOLUTION Or RELATED WEBSITES That 4 HEROIC WordPress WEBSITE DEVELOPERS HAVE CREATED 4 AMERICA AND THE WORLD AND YOU

SIXTY NINE (69) PATRIOT REVOLUTION Or Related WEBSITES That 4 Heroic WordPress Website Developers Have Created 4 America And The World And You

imanagebyallend.wordpress.com BLOG>
http://imanagebyallend.wordpress.com/2014/02/24/sixty-nine-69-patriot-revolution-or-related-websites-that-4-heroic-wordpress-website-developers-have-created-4-america-and-the-world-and-you/

CROSBY, STILLS, NASH Woodstock 1971

“Seven Bridges Road”… By The Eagles >

The Free ***WordPress*** —>
Website DEVELOPMENT/
Internet MANAGEMENT/
And
Social Media MATERIAL GENERATION/
SOFTWARE Platform/ Has Built Into It/ Numerous Cool Ways /”To Organize Things”.
One EXAMPLE IS creating a Primary Collective Website for Numerous Other Secondary Websites.
It May Be Worthy To Note here that our WordPress Collaborative Internet Team has—>
A Collective Website called SweetSixteenWebsites.com.
In essence, this Collective Website Represents “A List of Sixteen Websites”.
************

ALL ALONG THE WATCHTOWER-VIETNAM WAR-JIMI Hendrix >

Scott MacKenzie San Francisco 1967(original) >

Where Have all the Flowers Gone: Eve of Destruction >

The Byrds – Turn! Turn! Turn! >

WHAT IS THE #1/BEST SOFTWARE CHOICE FOR CEO’S AND OTHER EXECUTIVE MANAGEMENT PERSONNEL?

Woodstock-Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young (with Lyrics) > from MissBadGirl95 >

ON BROADWAY – THE DRIFTERS 1963.wmv >

The blog that “tells my Heart” > Fame Don’t Mean Beans To Me! >

Fame Don’t Mean Beans To Me (3-30-2011)

A Biggie Went On Sweet/Sixteen/Websites DOT Com Today (2-17-14)—> As per the Historic Title Reflected In the Below—>

Why WordPress is Clearly the Best Software Choice for Executive Management, Regardless of Your Organization’s Name, Structure, Goals and/or Endeavors (2-17-14)

Incidentally, there is a List Of 16 WordPress Internet/Management Websites Worth A Look At–> A List Of Sixteen (16) Executive/Management Websites Authored On WordPress By ADOGG aka THE BOSS And Allen D (2-23-14).

Tim Buckley – Once I Was (HQ) >

this blog is under construction until FEB25th

Ten Days of Progress Using Intuitive Collaboration

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WordPress IS THE BEST!

Ten Days of Progress Using Intuitive Collaboration

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A List Of Our PATRIOT MOVEMENT iCollaborative Internet TEAM’s WordPress And Dot Com 69 Websites Under iDevelopment In February 2014

A List Of Our PATRIOT MOVEMENT iCollaborative Internet TEAM’s WordPress And Dot Com 69 Websites Under iDevelopment In February 2014

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A List Of Our PATRIOT MOVEMENT iCollaborative Internet TEAM’s WordPress And Dot Com 69 Websites Under iDevelopment In February 2014

this blog is under construction until FEB25th

As *Discoverers of Sorts*, We 4 Geniuses and/or “near geniuses” Proved Some Things 2 the World since April 2012.

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A List Of Our WordPress iCollaborative Internet Team’s WordPress And Dot Com Websites Under Development In February 2014

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My WordPress Collaborative Internet Team’s WordPress And Dot Com Blogs (Websites) in February 2014.

We are in the Process of Tightening Up this list of Sixty Nine (69) Current Patriot Movement Revolution and Related Websites of ours.

Archie Bell & The Drells – Tighten Up >

Here’s an overview of our blogs.

From here, we can manage our posts, pages, comments, and our blog’s appearance.

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FEDERAL GOVERNMENT SUPPRESSION OF TRUTHS

Federal Government Suppression of Truths

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Federal Government Suppression of Truths

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Federal Government Suppression of Multiple Truths

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HARRIET TUBMAN; A BLACK WOMAN AMERICAN HERO THAT GOOGLE IS REMINDING US OF TODAY (2-1-2014)

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Logo Title: Womens Day 2013
Logo Title: Womens Day 2013 *Just Think of What Is Going To Happen* in the future When All the Women of the World Become Connected Over the Internet!

*Just Think of What Is Going To Happen* in the future When All the Women of the World Become Connected Over the Internet!

Google is Honoring Harriet Tubman Today.

Thank You Google Company! For Reminding Us Of Her Heroism In Service To Her Fellow Man.

Google’s Top Search Result for a Search for—> Harriet Tubman —> is on Wikipedia as follows—>

Harriet Tubman

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Page semi-protected
HARRIET TUBMAN
Harriet Tubman by Squyer, NPG, c1885.jpg

Harriet Tubman circa 1885
BORN Araminta Harriet Ross
1820
Dorchester County, Maryland, U.S.
DIED March 10, 1913 (aged 93)
Auburn, New York, U.S.
CAUSE OF DEATH
Pneumonia
RESTING PLACE
Fort Hill CemeteryAuburn, New York, U.S.
RESIDENCE AuburnNew York, U.S.
OTHER NAMES Minty, Moses
OCCUPATION Civil War Nurse, Suffragist, Civil Rights activist
EMPLOYER Edward Brodess
RELIGION Christian
SPOUSE(S) John Tubman (m.1844–1851)
Nelson Davies (1869–1888; his death)
CHILDREN Gertie (adopted)
PARENTS Harriet Greene
Ben Ross
RELATIVES Modesty (grandmother)
Linah (sister)
Mariah Ritty (sister)
Soph (sister)
Robert (brother)
Ben (brother)
Rachel (sister)
Henry (brother)
Moses (brother)
SIGNATURE Signature general affidavit of Harriet Tubman (1898), front.jpg

Harriet Tubman (born Araminta Harriet Ross; 1820 – March 10, 1913) was an African-American abolitionisthumanitarian, and Union spy during the American Civil War. Born into slavery, Tubman escaped and subsequently made more than nineteen missions to rescue more than 300 slaves[1] using the network of antislavery activists and safe houses known as the Underground Railroad. She later helped John Brown recruit men for his raid on Harpers Ferry, and in the post-war era struggled for women’s suffrage.

As a child in Dorchester CountyMaryland, Tubman was beaten by masters to whom she was hired out. Early in her life, she suffered a severe head wound when hit by a heavy metal weight. The injury caused disabling seizuresnarcoleptic attacksheadaches, and powerful visionary and dream experiences, which occurred throughout her life. A devout Christian, Tubman ascribed thevisions and vivid dreams to revelations from God.

In 1849, Tubman escaped to Philadelphia, then immediately returned to Maryland to rescue her family. Slowly, one group at a time, she brought relatives out of the state, and eventually guided dozens of other slaves to freedom. Traveling by night, Tubman (or “Moses”, as she was called) “never lost a passenger”.[2] Large rewards were offered for the return of many of the fugitive slaves, but no one then knew that Tubman was the one helping them. When the Southern-dominated Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Act of 1850, requiring law officials in free states to aid efforts to recapture slaves, she helped guide fugitives farther north into Canada, where slavery had been abolished in 1834.

When the American Civil War began, Tubman worked for the Union Army, first as a cook and nurse, and then as an armed scout and spy. The first woman to lead an armed expedition in the war, she guided the Combahee River Raid, which liberated more than 700 slaves in South Carolina. After the war, she retired to the family home in Auburn, New York, where she cared for her aging parents. She became active in the women’s suffrage movement in New York until illness overtook her. Near the end of her life, she lived in a home for elderly African Americans that she had helped found years earlier.

Early life and education

Harriet Tubman was born Araminta “Minty” Ross to slave parents, Harriet (“Rit”) Green and Ben Ross. Rit was owned by Mary Pattison Brodess (and later her son Edward). Ben was held by Anthony Thompson, who became Mary’s second husband, and who ran a large plantation near Blackwater River in Madison, Maryland. As with many slaves in the United States, neither the exact year nor place of Araminta’s birth was recorded, and historians differ as to the best estimate. Kate Larson records the year 1822, based on a midwife payment and several other historical documents, including her runaway advertisement[3] while Jean Humez says “the best current evidence suggests that Tubman was born in 1820, but it might have been a year or two later.”[4]Catherine Clinton notes that Tubman reported the year of her birth as 1825, while her death certificate lists 1815 and her gravestone lists 1820.[5] In her Civil War widow’s pension records, Tubman claimed she was born in 1820, 1822, and 1825, an indication, perhaps, that she had only a general idea of when she was born.

A map showing key locations in Tubman’s life

Modesty, Tubman’s maternal grandmother, arrived in the United States on a slave ship from Africa; no information is available about her other ancestors.[6] As a child, Tubman was told that she was of Ashanti lineage (from what is now Ghana), though no evidence exists to confirm or deny this assertion.[7] Her mother Rit (who may have had a white father)[7][8] was a cook for the Brodess family.[4] Her father Ben was a skilled woodsman who managed the timber work on Thompson’s plantation.[7] They married around 1808 and, according to court records, they had nine children together: Linah, born in 1808, Mariah Ritty in 1811, Soph in 1813, Robert in 1816, Minty (Harriet) in 1822, Ben in 1823, Rachel in 1825, Henry in 1830, and Moses in 1832.[9]

Rit struggled to keep their family together as slavery threatened to tear it apart. Edward Brodess sold three of her daughters (Linah, Mariah Ritty, and Soph), separating them from the family forever.[10]When a trader from Georgia approached Brodess about buying Rit’s youngest son, Moses, she hid him for a month, aided by other slaves and free blacks in the community.[11] At one point she confronted her owner about the sale.[12] Finally, Brodess and “the Georgia man” came toward the slave quarters to seize the child, where Rit told them, “You are after my son; but the first man that comes into my house, I will split his head open.”[12] Brodess backed away and abandoned the sale.[13] Tubman’s biographers agree that stories told about this event within the family influenced her belief in the possibilities of resistance.[13][14]

Childhood

Because Tubman’s mother was assigned to “the big house” and had scarce time for her family, as a child Tubman took care of a younger brother and a baby, as was typical in large families.[15] When she was five or six years old, Brodess hired her out as a nursemaid to a woman named “Miss Susan”. Tubman was ordered to keep watch on the baby as it slept; when it woke and cried, Tubman was whipped. She later recounted a particular day when she was lashed five times before breakfast. She carried the scars for the rest of her life.[16] She found ways to resist, running away for five days,[17] wearing layers of clothing as protection against beatings, and fighting back.[18]

As a child, Tubman also worked at the home of a planter named James Cook. She had to check the muskrat traps in nearby marshes, even after contracting measles. She became so ill that Cook sent her back to Brodess, where her mother nursed her back to health. Brodess then hired her out again. Tubman spoke later of her acute childhood homesickness, comparing herself to “the boy on the Swanee River“, an allusion to Stephen Foster’s song “Old Folks at Home“.[19] As she grew older and stronger, she was assigned to field and forest work, driving oxen, plowing, and hauling logs.[20]

Head injury

One day, the adolescent Tubman was sent to a dry-goods store for supplies. There, she encountered a slave owned by another family, who had left the fields without permission. His overseer, furious, demanded that Tubman help restrain the young man. She refused, and as the slave ran away, the overseer threw a two-pound weight at him. He struck Tubman instead, which she said “broke my skull”. She later explained her belief that her hair – which “had never been combed and … stood out like a bushel basket” – might have saved her life. Bleeding and unconscious, Tubman was returned to her owner’s house and laid on the seat of a loom, where she remained without medical care for two days. She was sent back into the fields, “with blood and sweat rolling down my face until I couldn’t see.”[21] Her boss said she was “not worth a sixpence” and returned her to Brodess, who tried unsuccessfully to sell her.[22] She began having seizures and would seemingly fall unconscious, although she claimed to be aware of her surroundings while appearing to be asleep. These episodes were alarming to her family, who were unable to wake her when she fell asleep suddenly and without warning. This condition remained with Tubman for the rest of her life; Larson suggests she may have suffered from temporal lobe epilepsy as a result of the injury.[23]

The severe head wound occurred when Tubman was becoming deeply religious–although one must note this is not insinuating this as being the chief cause. As an illiterate child, she had been told Bible stories by her mother.[24] The particular variety of her early Christian belief remains unclear, but Tubman acquired a passionate faith in God. She rejected the teachings of the New Testament that urged slaves to be obedient and found guidance in the Old Testament tales of deliverance. Additionally, Tubman began having visions and potent dreams, which she considered signs from the divine. This religious perspective instructed her throughout her life.[25]

Family and marriage

By 1840, Tubman’s father, Ben, was manumitted from slavery at the age of 45, as stipulated in a former owner’s will, though his real age was closer to 55. He continued working as a timber estimator and foreman for the Thompson family, who had held him as a slave.[26] Several years later, Tubman contacted a white attorney and paid him five dollars to investigate her mother’s legal status. The lawyer discovered that a former owner had issued instructions that Rit, like her husband, would be manumitted at the age of 45. The record showed that a similar provision would apply to Rit’s children, and that any children born after she reached 45 years of age were legally free, but the Pattison and Brodess families had ignored this stipulation when they inherited the slaves. Challenging it legally was an impossible task for Tubman.[27]

Around 1844, she married a free black man named John Tubman.[28] Although little is known about him or their time together, the union was complicated because of her slave status. Since the mother’s status dictated that of children, any children born to Harriet and John would be enslaved. Such blended marriages – free people marrying enslaved people – were not uncommon on the Eastern Shore of Maryland, where by this time, half the black population was free. Most African-American families had both free and enslaved members. Larson suggests that they might have planned to buy Tubman’s freedom.[29]

Tubman changed her name from Araminta to Harriet soon after her marriage, though the exact timing is unclear. Larson suggests this happened right after the wedding,[28] and Clinton suggests that it coincided with Tubman’s plans to escape from slavery.[30] She adopted her mother’s name, possibly as part of a religious conversion, or to honor another relative.[28][30]

Escape from slavery

In 1849, Tubman became ill again, and her value as a slave was diminished as a result. Edward Brodess tried to sell her, but could not find a buyer.[31] Angry at his action and the unjust hold he kept on her relatives, Tubman began to pray for her owner, asking God to make him change his ways.[32]

“I prayed all night long for my master,” she said later, “till the first of March; and all the time he was bringing people to look at me, and trying to sell me.” When it appeared as though a sale was being concluded, she switched tactics. “I changed my prayer,” she said. “First of March I began to pray, ‘Oh Lord, if you ain’t never going to change that man’s heart, kill him, Lord, and take him out of the way.”[33]

A week later, Brodess died, and Tubman expressed regret for her earlier sentiments.[34]

Brodess’s death increased the likelihood that Tubman would be sold and her family would be broken apart, as frequently happened in the settlement of an estate.[35] His widow, Eliza, began working to sell the family’s slaves.[36] Tubman refused to wait for the Brodess family to decide her fate, despite her husband’s efforts to dissuade her.[37] ”[T]here was one of two things I had a right to,” she explained later, “liberty or death; if I could not have one, I would have the other.”[38]

Notice published in the CambridgeDemocrat, offering a three hundred dollar reward for Araminta (Minty) and her brothers Henry and Ben

Tubman and her brothers, Ben and Henry, escaped from slavery on September 17, 1849. Tubman had been hired out to Dr. Anthony Thompson, who owned a large plantation in an area called Poplar Neck in neighboring Caroline County; it is likely her brothers labored for Thompson as well. Because the slaves were hired out to another household, Eliza Brodess probably did not recognize their absence as an escape attempt for some time. Two weeks later, she posted a runaway notice in the Cambridge Democrat, offering a reward of up to 100 dollars for each slave returned.[39] Once they had left, Tubman’s brothers had second thoughts. Ben may have just become a father. The two men went back, forcing Tubman to return with them.[40]

Soon afterward, Tubman escaped again, this time without her brothers.[41] Beforehand, she tried to send word to her mother of her plans. She sang a coded song to Mary, a trusted fellow slave, that was a farewell. “I’ll meet you in the morning,” she intoned, “I’m bound for the promised land”.[42] While her exact route is unknown, Tubman made use of the network known as the Underground Railroad. This informal, but well-organized, system was composed of free and enslaved blacks, white abolitionists, and other activists. Most prominent among the latter in Maryland at the time were members of theReligious Society of Friends, often called Quakers.[41] The Preston area near Poplar Neck in Caroline County contained a substantial Quaker community, and was probably an important first stop during Tubman’s escape.[43] From there, she probably took a common route for fleeing slaves – northeast along the Choptank River, through Delaware and then north into Pennsylvania.[44] A journey of nearly 90 miles (145 kilometers), her traveling by foot would have taken between five days and three weeks.[45]

Tubman had to travel by night, guided by the North Star, and trying to avoid slave catchers, eager to collect rewards for fugitive slaves.[46] The “conductors” in the Underground Railroad used a variety of deceptions for protection. At one of the earliest stops, the lady of the house ordered Tubman to sweep the yard to make it appear as though she worked for the family. When night fell, the family hid her in a cart and took her to the next friendly house.[47] Given her familiarity with the woods and marshes of the region, it is likely that Tubman hid in these locales during the day.[44] Because the routes she followed were used by other fugitive slaves, Tubman did not speak about them until later in her life.

Particulars of her first journey remain shrouded in secrecy.[48] She crossed into Pennsylvania with a feeling of relief and awe, and recalled the experience years later:

“When I found I had crossed that line, I looked at my hands to see if I was the same person. There was such a glory over everything; the sun came like gold through the trees, and over the fields, and I felt like I was in Heaven.”[42]

“Moses”

After reaching Philadelphia, Tubman began thinking of her family. “I was a stranger in a strange land,” she said later. “[M]y father, my mother, my brothers, and sisters, and friends were [in Maryland]. But I was free, and they should be free.”[49]She began to work odd jobs and save money.[50] At the same time, the U.S. Congress passed the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which forced law enforcement officials (even in states that had outlawed slavery) to aid in the capture of fugitive slaves, and imposed heavy punishments on those who abetted escape. The law increased risks for escaped slaves, and more began to try to get to Canada, which had abolished slavery.[51] Racial tensions increased in Philadelphia, as waves of poor Irish immigrants competed with free blacks for work.[52]

In December 1850, Tubman received a warning that her niece Kessiah was going to be sold (along with her two children, six-year-old James Alfred, and baby Araminta) in Cambridge. Tubman returned to the land of her enslavement. She went toBaltimore, where her brother-in-law Tom Tubman hid her until the time of the sale. Kessiah’s husband, a free black man named John Bowley, made the winning bid for his wife. Then, while he pretended to make arrangements to pay, Kessiah and their children escaped to a nearby safe house. When night fell, Bowley sailed the family on a log canoe 60 miles (100 kilometers) to Baltimore. They met up with Tubman, who brought the family safely to Philadelphia.[53]

The following spring, she headed back into Maryland to help guide away other family members. On her second trip, she brought back her brother Moses, and two other unidentified men.[54] It is likely that Tubman was by this time working with abolitionist Thomas Garrett, a Quaker working in Wilmington, Delaware.[55] Word of her exploits had encouraged her family, and biographers agree that she became more confident with each trip to Maryland.[54][56] As she led more individuals out of slavery, she was named “Moses” by abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison, an allusion to the prophet in the Book of Exodus who led the Hebrews to freedom from Egypt.[57]

During an interview with author Wilbur Siebert in 1897, Tubman revealed some of the names of helpers and places she used along the Underground Railroad. She stayed with Sam Green, a free black minister living in East New Market, Maryland; she also hid near her parents’ home at Poplar Neck in Caroline County, Maryland. From there, she would travel northeast to Sandtown and Willow Grove, Delaware, and onto the Camden area where free black agents, William and Nat Brinkley and Abraham Gibbs, guided her north past Dover, Smyrna, and Blackbird, where other agents would take her across the Chesapeake and Delaware Canal to New Castle and Wilmington. In Wilmington, Quaker Thomas Garrett would secure transportation to William Still‘s office or the homes of other Underground Railroad operators in the greater Philadelphia area. Still, a famous black agent, is credited with aiding hundreds of freedom seekers escape to safer places farther north in New York, New England, and Canada.[58]

In the fall of 1851, Tubman returned to Dorchester County for the first time since her escape, this time to find her husband, John. She once again saved money from various jobs, purchased a suit for him, and made her way south. John, meanwhile, had married another woman named Caroline. Tubman sent word that he should join her, but he insisted that he was happy where he was. Tubman at first prepared to storm their house and make a scene, but then decided he was not worth the trouble. Suppressing her anger, she found some slaves who wanted to escape and led them to Philadelphia.[59] John and Caroline raised a family together, until he was killed 16 years later in a roadside argument with a white man named Robert Vincent.[60]

Frederick Douglass, who worked for slavery’s abolition alongside Tubman and praised her in print

Because the Fugitive Slave Law had made the northern United States more dangerous for escaped slaves, many began migrating further north to Canada. In December 1851, Tubman guided an unidentified group of 11 fugitives, possibly including the Bowleys and several others she had helped rescue earlier, northward. There is evidence to suggest that Tubman and her group stopped at the home of abolitionist and former slave Frederick Douglass.[61] In his third autobiography, Douglass wrote: “On one occasion I had eleven fugitives at the same time under my roof, and it was necessary for them to remain with me until I could collect sufficient money to get them on to Canada. It was the largest number I ever had at any one time, and I had some difficulty in providing so many with food and shelter….”[62] The number of travelers and the time of the visit make it likely that this was Tubman’s group.[61]

Douglass and Tubman showed a great admiration for one another as they struggled together against slavery. When an early biography of Tubman was being prepared in 1868, Douglass wrote a letter to honor her. It read in part:

You ask for what you do not need when you call upon me for a word of commendation. I need such words from you far more than you can need them from me, especially where your superior labors and devotion to the cause of the lately enslaved of our land are known as I know them. The difference between us is very marked. Most that I have done and suffered in the service of our cause has been in public, and I have received much encouragement at every step of the way. You, on the other hand, have labored in a private way. I have wrought in the day—you in the night. … The midnight sky and the silent stars have been the witnesses of your devotion to freedom and of your heroism. Excepting John Brown—of sacred memory—I know of no one who has willingly encountered more perils and hardships to serve our enslaved people than you have.[63]

Journeys and methods

For 11 years Tubman returned repeatedly to the Eastern Shore of Maryland, rescuing some 300 slaves in about 19 expeditions,[1] including her three other brothers, Henry, Ben, and Robert, their wives and some of their children. She also provided specific instructions for about 50 to 60 other fugitives who escaped to the north.[64] Her dangerous work required tremendous ingenuity; she usually worked during winter months, to minimize the likelihood that the group would be seen. One admirer of Tubman said: “She always came in the winter, when the nights are long and dark, and people who have homes stay in them.”[65] Once she had made contact with escaping slaves, they left town on Saturday evenings, since newspapers would not print runaway notices until Monday morning.[66]

SLAVERY
CONTEMPORARY
TYPES
HISTORIC
BY COUNTRY OR REGION
RELIGION
OPPOSITION AND RESISTANCE
RELATED TOPICS

Her journeys into the land of slavery put her at tremendous risk, and she used a variety of subterfuges to avoid detection. Tubman once disguised herself with a bonnet and carried two live chickens to give the appearance of running errands. Suddenly finding herself walking toward a former owner in Dorchester County, she yanked the strings holding the birds’ legs, and their agitation allowed her to avoid eye contact.[67] Later she recognized a fellow train passenger as another former master; she snatched a nearby newspaper and pretended to read. Since Tubman was known to be illiterate, the man ignored her.[68]

Her religious faith was another important resource as she ventured repeatedly into Maryland. The visions from her childhood head injury continued, and she saw them as divine premonitions. She spoke of “consulting with God”, and trusted that He would keep her safe.[69] Thomas Garrett once said of her, “I never met with any person of any color who had more confidence in the voice of God, as spoken direct to her soul.”[70] Her faith in the divine also provided immediate assistance. She used spirituals as coded messages, warning fellow travelers of danger or to signal a clear path.[71]

She carried a revolver, and was not afraid to use it. Once a slave agreed to join her expedition, there was no turning back; she threatened to shoot anyone who tried to return.[72] Tubman told the tale of one journey with a group of fugitive slaves, when morale sank and one man insisted he was going to go back to the plantation. She pointed the gun at his head and said, “You go on or die.”[73] Several days later, he was with the group as they entered Canada.[69] It is more than likely that Tubman carried the handgun as protection from ever-present slave catchers and their dogs.

Slaveholders in the region, meanwhile, never knew that “Minty”, the petite, five-foot-tall, disabled slave who had run away years before and never come back, was behind so many slave escapes in their community. By the late 1850s, they began to suspect a northern white abolitionist was secretly enticing their slaves away. They considered that John Brown himself had come to the Eastern Shore to lure slaves away before his ill-fated raid on Harper’s Ferry in October 1859.

While a popular legend persists about a reward of US$40,000 for Tubman’s capture, this is a manufactured figure. In 1868, in an effort to drum up support for Tubman’s claim for a Civil War military pension, a former abolitionist named Salley Holley wrote an article claiming US$40,000 “was not too great a reward for Maryland slaveholders to offer for her.”[74] Such a high reward would have garnered national attention, especially at a time when a small farm could be purchased for a mere US$400. No such reward has been found in period newspapers. (The federal government offered $25,000 for the capture of each of John Wilkes Booth‘s co-conspirators in Lincoln’s assassination.) A reward offering of US$12,000 has also been claimed, though no documentation exists for that figure either. Catherine Clinton suggests that the US$40,000 figure may have been a combined total of the various bounties offered around the region.[75]

Despite the best efforts of the slaveholders, Tubman was never captured, and neither were the fugitives she guided. Years later, she told an audience: “I was conductor of the Underground Railroad for eight years, and I can say what most conductors can’t say – I never ran my train off the track and I never lost a passenger.”[76] One of her last missions into Maryland was to retrieve her aging parents. Her father, Ben, had purchased Rit, her mother, in 1855 from Eliza Brodess for 20 dollars.[77] But even when they were both free, the area became hostile to their presence. Two years later, Tubman received word that her father had harbored a group of eight escaped slaves, and was at risk of arrest. She traveled to the Eastern Shore and led them north into the Canadian city of St. Catharines, Ontario, where a community of former slaves (including Tubman’s brothers, other relatives, and many friends) had gathered.[78]

John Brown and Harpers Ferry

In April 1858, Tubman was introduced to the abolitionist John Brown, an insurgent who advocated the use of violence to destroy slavery in the United States. Although she never advocated violence against whites, she agreed with his course of direct action and supported his goals.[79] Like Tubman, he spoke of being called by God, and trusted the divine to protect him from the wrath of slaveholders. She, meanwhile, claimed to have had a prophetic vision of meeting Brown before their encounter.[80]

Tubman helped John Brown (pictured) plan and recruit for the raid at Harpers Ferry.

Thus, as he began recruiting supporters for an attack on slaveholders, Brown was joined by “General Tubman”, as he called her.[79] Her knowledge of support networks and resources in the border states of Pennsylvania, Maryland and Delaware was invaluable to Brown and his planners. Although other abolitionists like Frederick Douglass and William Lloyd Garrison did not endorse his tactics, Brown dreamed of fighting to create a new state for freed slaves, and made preparations for military action. After he began the first battle, he believed, slaves would rise up and carry out a rebellion across the south.[81] He asked Tubman to gather former slaves then living in Canada who might be willing to join his fighting force, which she did.[82]

On May 8, 1858, Brown held a meeting in Chatham-Kent, Ontario, where he unveiled his plan for a raid on Harpers Ferry, Virginia.[83] When word of the plan was leaked to the government, Brown put the scheme on hold and began raising funds for its eventual resumption. Tubman aided him in this effort, and with more detailed plans for the assault.[84]

Tubman was busy during this time, giving talks to abolitionist audiences and tending to her relatives. In the autumn of 1859, as Brown and his men prepared to launch the attack, Tubman could not be contacted.[85] When the raid on Harpers Ferry took place on October 16, Tubman was not present. Some historians believe she was in New York at the time, ill with fever related to her childhood head injury.[85] Others propose she may have been recruiting more escaped slaves in Canada,[86] and Kate Clifford Larson suggests she may have been in Maryland, recruiting for Brown’s raid or attempting to rescue more family members.[87] Larson also notes that Tubman may have begun sharing Frederick Douglass’ doubts about the viability of the plan.[87]

The raid failed; Brown was convicted of treason and hanged in December. His actions were seen by abolitionists as a symbol of proud resistance, carried out by a noble martyr.[88] Tubman herself was effusive with praise. She later told a friend: “[H]e done more in dying, than 100 men would in living.”[89]

Auburn and Margaret

In early 1859, abolitionist U.S. Senator William H. Seward sold Tubman a small piece of land on the outskirts of Auburn, New York for US$1,200.[90] The city was a hotbed of antislavery activism, and Tubman seized the opportunity to deliver her parents from the harsh Canadian winters.[91] Returning to the U.S. meant that escaped slaves were at risk of being returned to the south under the Fugitive Slave Law, and Tubman’s siblings expressed reservations. Catherine Clinton suggests that anger over the 1857 Dred Scott decision may have prompted Tubman to return to the U.S.[91] Her land in Auburn became a haven for Tubman’s family and friends. For years, she took in relatives and boarders, offering a safe place for black Americans seeking a better life in the north.[60]

Shortly after acquiring the Auburn property, Tubman went back to Maryland and returned with her “niece”, an eight-year-old light-skinned black girl named Margaret.[91] The circumstances of this expedition remain clouded in mystery. There is great confusion about the identity of Margaret’s parents, although Tubman indicated they were free blacks. The girl had left behind a twin brother and a loving home in Maryland.[92] Years later, Margaret’s daughter Alice called Tubman’s actions selfish, saying, “she had taken the child from a sheltered good home to a place where there was nobody to care for her.”[93] Indeed, Alice described it as a “kidnapping”.[94]

However, both Clinton and Larson present the possibility that Margaret was in fact Tubman’s daughter.[95][96] Larson points out that the two shared an unusually strong bond, and argues that Tubman – knowing the pain of a child separated from her mother – would never have intentionally caused a free family to be split apart.[97] Clinton presents evidence of strong physical similarities, which Alice herself acknowledged.[95] Both historians agree that no concrete evidence exists for such a possibility, and the mystery of Tubman’s relationship with young Margaret remains to this day.[98]

In November 1860, Tubman conducted her last rescue mission. Throughout the 1850s, Tubman had been unable to effect the escape of her sister, Rachel, and Rachel’s two children, Ben and Angerine. Upon returning to Dorchester County, Tubman discovered that Rachel had died, and the children could only be rescued if she could pay a US$30 bribe. She had no money, so the children remained enslaved. Their fates remain unknown. Never one to waste a trip, Tubman gathered another group, including the Ennals family, ready and willing to take the risks of the journey north. It took them weeks to safely get away because of slave catchers, forcing them to hide out longer than expected. The weather was unseasonably cold and they had little food. The children were drugged with paregoric to keep them quiet while slave patrols rode by. They safely reached the home of David and Martha Wright in Auburn, New York on December 28, 1860.

Civil War

Union General David Hunter worked with Tubman during the Civil War and shared her abolitionist views.

When the American Civil War broke out in 1861, Tubman saw a Union victory as a key step toward the abolition of slavery. General Benjamin Butler, for instance, aided escaped slaves flooding into Fort Monroe.[99] Butler had declared these fugitives to be “contraband” – property seized by northern forces – and put them to work without pay in the fort.[100] Tubman hoped to offer her own expertise and skills to the Union cause, too, and soon she joined a group of Boston and Philadelphia abolitionists heading to the Hilton Head District in South Carolina. She became a fixture in the camps, particularly inPort Royal, South Carolina, assisting fugitives.[101]

Tubman soon met with General David Hunter, a strong supporter of abolition. He declared all of the “contrabands” in the Port Royal district free, and began gathering former slaves for a regiment of black soldiers.[102] U.S. President Abraham Lincoln, however, was not prepared to enforce emancipation on the southern states, and reprimanded Hunter for his actions.[102] Tubman condemned Lincoln’s response and his general unwillingness to consider ending slavery in the U.S., for both moral and practical reasons. “God won’t let master Lincoln beat the South till he does the right thing,” she said.

Master Lincoln, he’s a great man, and I am a poor negro; but the negro can tell master Lincoln how to save the money and the young men. He can do it by setting the negro free. Suppose that was an awful big snake down there, on the floor. He bite you. Folks all scared, because you die. You send for a doctor to cut the bite; but the snake, he rolled up there, and while the doctor doing it, he bite you again. The doctor dug out that bite; but while the doctor doing it, the snake, he spring up and bite you again; so he keep doing it, till you kill him. That’s what master Lincoln ought to know.[103]

Tubman served as a nurse in Port Royal, preparing remedies from local plants and aiding soldiers suffering from dysentery. She rendered assistance to men with smallpox; that she did not contract the disease herself started more rumors that she was blessed by God.[104] At first, she received government rations for her work, but newly freed blacks thought she was getting special treatment. To ease the tension, she gave up her right to these supplies and made money selling pies and root beer, which she made in the evenings.[105]

Scouting and the Combahee River Raid

When Lincoln finally issued the Emancipation Proclamation in January 1863, Tubman considered it an important step toward the goal of liberating all black men, women, and children from slavery.[106] She renewed her support for a defeat of the Confederacy, and before long she was leading a band of scouts through the land around Port Royal. The marshes and rivers in South Carolina were similar to those of the Eastern Shore of Maryland; thus her knowledge of covert travel and subterfuge among potential enemies were put to good use.[107] Her group, working under the orders of Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton, mapped the unfamiliar terrain and reconnoitered its inhabitants. She later worked alongside Colonel James Montgomery, and provided him with key intelligence that aided the capture of Jacksonville, Florida.[108]

A woodcut of Tubman in her Civil Warclothing

Later that year, Tubman became the first woman to lead an armed assault during the Civil War.[109] When Montgomery and his troops conducted an assault on a collection of plantations along theCombahee River, Tubman served as a key adviser and accompanied the raid. On the morning of June 2, 1863, Tubman guided three steamboats around Confederate mines in the waters leading to the shore.[110] Once ashore, the Union troops set fire to the plantations, destroying infrastructure and seizing thousands of dollars worth of food and supplies.[111] When the steamboats sounded their whistles, slaves throughout the area understood that it was being liberated. Tubman watched as slaves stampeded toward the boats. “I never saw such a sight,” she said later,[112] describing a scene of chaos with women carrying still-steaming pots of rice, pigs squealing in bags slung over shoulders, and babies hanging around their parents’ necks. Although their owners, armed with handguns and whips, tried to stop the mass escape, their efforts were nearly useless in the tumult.[111] As Confederate troops raced to the scene, steamboats packed full of slaves took off toward Beaufort.[113]

More than 700 slaves were rescued in the Combahee River Raid.[114][115] Newspapers heralded Tubman’s “patriotism, sagacity, energy, [and] ability”,[116] and she was praised for her recruiting efforts – most of the newly liberated men went on to join the Union army.[117] Tubman later worked with Colonel Robert Gould Shaw at the assault on Fort Wagner, reportedly serving him his last meal.[118] She described the battle by saying: “And then we saw the lightning, and that was the guns; and then we heard the thunder, and that was the big guns; and then we heard the rain falling, and that was the drops of blood falling; and when we came to get the crops, it was dead men that we reaped.”[119]

For two more years, Tubman worked for the Union forces, tending to newly liberated slaves, scouting into Confederate territory, and eventually nursing wounded soldiers in Virginia.[120] She also made periodic trips back to Auburn, to visit her family and care for her parents.[121] The Confederacy surrendered in April 1865; after donating several more months of service, Tubman headed home.[122]

Tubman returned to Auburn at the end of the war. During a train ride to New York, the conductor told her to move into the smoking car. She refused, explaining her government service. He cursed at her and grabbed her, but she resisted and he summoned two other passengers for help. While she clutched at the railing, they muscled her away, breaking her arm in the process. They threw her into the smoking car, causing more injuries. As these events transpired, other white passengers cursed Tubman and shouted for the conductor to kick her off the train.[123]

Despite her years of service, she had never received a regular salary and was for years denied compensation.[124][125] Her unofficial status and the unequal payments offered to black soldiers caused great difficulty in documenting her service, and the U.S. government was slow in recognizing its debt to her.[126] Tubman did not receive a pension for her service in the Civil War until 1899.[127][128] Her constant humanitarian work for her family and former slaves, meanwhile, kept her in a state of constant poverty, and her difficulties in obtaining a government pension were especially taxing for her.[129]

Later life

Tubman (far left), with Davis (seated, with cane), their adopted daughter Gertie (beside Tubman), Lee Cheney, John “Pop” Alexander, Walter Green, Blind “Aunty” Sarah Parker, and great-niece, Dora Stewart at Tubman’s home inAuburn, New York circa 1887

Tubman spent her remaining years in Auburn, tending to her family and other people in need. She worked various jobs to support her elderly parents, and took in boarders to help pay the bills.[60] One of the people Tubman took in was a Civil War veteran named Nelson Davis. He began working in Auburn as a bricklayer, and they soon fell in love. Though he was 22 years younger than she was, on March 18, 1869, they were married at the Central Presbyterian Church.[130] They spent the next 20 years together, and in 1874 they adopted a baby girl named Gertie.[131]

Tubman’s friends and supporters from the days of abolition, meanwhile, raised funds to support her. One admirer, Sarah Hopkins Bradford, wrote an authorized biography entitled Scenes in the Life of Harriet Tubman. The 132-page volume was published in 1869, and brought Tubman some US$1,200 in revenue.[132] Criticized by modern biographers for its artistic license and highly subjective point of view,[133] the book nevertheless remains an important source of information and perspective on Tubman’s life. Bradford released another volume in 1886 calledHarriet, the Moses of her People, which presented a less caustic view of slavery and the South. It, too, was published as a way to help alleviate Tubman’s poverty.[134]

Because of the debt she had accumulated (including delayed payment for her property in Auburn), Tubman fell prey in 1873 to a swindle involving gold transfer. Two men, one named Stevenson and the other John Thomas, claimed to have in their possession a cache of gold smuggled out of South Carolina.[135][136] They offered this treasure – worth about US$5,000, they claimed – for US$2,000 in cash. They insisted that they knew a relative of Tubman’s, and she took them into her home, where they stayed for several days.[137] She knew that white people in the South had buried valuables when Union forces threatened the region, and also that black men were frequently assigned to digging duties. Thus the situation seemed plausible, and a combination of her financial woes and her good nature led her to go along with the plan.[135] She borrowed the money from a wealthy friend named Anthony Shimer, and arranged to receive the gold late one night. Once the men had lured her into the woods, however, they attacked her and knocked her out with chloroform, then stole her purse and bound and gagged her. When she was found by her family, she was dazed and injured, and the money was gone.[135][138] New York responded with outrage to the incident, and while some criticized Tubman for her naïveté, most sympathized with her economic hardship and lambasted the con men.[139] The incident refreshed the public’s memory of her past service and her economic woes. Wisconsin Representative Gerry W. Hazelton introduced a bill (H.R. 3786) providing that Tubman be paid “the sum of $2,000 for services rendered by her to the Union Army as scout, nurse, and spy….”[140] It was defeated.

Susan B. Anthony worked with Tubman for women’s suffrage.

Suffragist activism

In her later years,Tubman worked to promote the cause of women’s suffrage. A white woman once asked Tubman whether she believed women ought to have the vote, and received the reply: “I suffered enough to believe it.”[141] Tubman began attending meetings of suffragist organizations, and was soon working alongside women such as Susan B. Anthony and Emily Howland.[142][143]

Tubman traveled to New York, Boston, and Washington, D.C. to speak out in favor of women’s voting rights. She described her actions during and after the Civil War, and used the sacrifices of countless women throughout modern history as evidence of women’s equality to men.[144] When the National Federation of Afro-American Women was founded in 1896, Tubman was the keynote speaker at its first meeting.[145]

This wave of activism kindled a new wave of admiration for Tubman among the press in the United States. A publication called The Woman’s Era launched a series of articles on “Eminent Women” with a profile of Tubman.[145] An 1897 suffragist newspaper reported a series of receptions in Boston honoring Tubman and her lifetime of service to the nation. However, her endless contributions to others had left her in poverty, and she had to sell a cow to buy a train ticket to these celebrations.[146]

AME Zion Church, illness, and death

Harriet Tubman, 1911

At the turn of the 20th century, Tubman became heavily involved with the African Methodist Episcopal Zion Church in Auburn. In 1903, she donated a parcel of real estate she owned to the church, under the instruction that it be made into a home for “aged and indigent colored people.”[147] The home did not open for another five years, and Tubman was dismayed when the church ordered residents to pay a $100 entrance fee. She said: “[T]hey make a rule that nobody should come in without they have a hundred dollars. Now I wanted to make a rule that nobody should come in unless they didn’t have no money at all.”[148] She was frustrated by the new rule but was the guest of honor nonetheless when the Harriet Tubman Home for the Aged celebrated its opening on June 23, 1908.[149]

As Tubman aged, the sleeping spells and suffering from her childhood head trauma continued to plague her. At some point in the late 1890s, she underwentbrain surgery at Boston’s Massachusetts General Hospital. Unable to sleep because of pains and “buzzing” in her head, she asked a doctor if he could operate. He agreed and, in her words, “sawed open my skull, and raised it up, and now it feels more comfortable.”[150] She had received no anesthesia for the procedure and reportedly chose instead to bite down on a bullet, as she had seen Civil War soldiers do when their limbs were amputated.[151]

By 1911, her body was so frail that she had to be admitted into the rest home named in her honor. A New York newspaper described her as “ill and penniless,” prompting supporters to offer a new round of donations.[152] Surrounded by friends and family members, Harriet Tubman died of pneumonia in 1913.[152] Just before she died, she told those in the room: “I go to prepare a place for you.”[153]

Legacy

Statue by Jane DeDecker commemorating Harriet Tubman, Ypsilanti, Michigan

Harriet Tubman, widely known and well-respected while she was alive, became an American icon in the years after she died. A survey at the end of the 20th century named her as one of the most famous civilians in American history before the Civil War, third only to Betsy Ross and Paul Revere.[154] She inspired generations of African Americansstruggling for equality and civil rights; she was praised by leaders across the political spectrum.[155]

When she died, Tubman was buried with military honors at Fort Hill Cemetery in Auburn. The city commemorated her life with a plaque on the courthouse. Although it showed pride for her many achievements, its use of dialect (“I nebber run my train off de track”), apparently chosen for its authenticity, has been criticized for undermining her stature as an American patriot and dedicated humanitarian.[156] Still, the dedication ceremony was a powerful tribute to her memory, and Booker T. Washington delivered the keynote address.[157] The Harriet Tubman home was abandoned after 1920, but was later renovated by the AME Zion Church. Today, it welcomes visitors as a museum and education center.[158]

Tubman was celebrated in many other ways throughout the nation in the 20th century. Dozens of schools were named in her honor,[159] and both the Harriet Tubman Home in Auburn and the Harriet Tubman Museum in Cambridge serve as monuments to her life.[159] In 1937 the gravestone for Harriet Tubman Davis was erected by the Empire State Federation of Women’s Clubs; it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1999.[160] In 1944, the United States Maritime Commission launched the SS Harriet Tubman, its first Liberty ship ever named for a black woman.[161] In 1978, the United States Postal Service issued a stamp in honor of Tubman as the first in a series honoring African Americans.[162] She is commemorated together with Elizabeth Cady StantonAmelia Bloomer, and Sojourner Truth in the calendar of saints of the Episcopal Church on July 20. In 1999, the Canadian government designated the Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church in St. Catharines, as a National Historic Site of Canada because of its association with Tubman.[163][164] In 2002, scholar Molefi Kete Asante included Harriet Tubman on his list of the 100 Greatest African Americans.[165] In 2008, Towson University named a new residence hall after Tubman.[166] In March 2013, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation creating Harriet Tubman Underground Railroad National Monument on the Eastern Shore.[167]

Historiography

Bradford’s biographies were followed by Earl Conrad’s Harriet Tubman: Negro Soldier and Abolitionist. Conrad had experienced great difficulty in finding a publisher – the search took four years – and endured disdain and contempt for his efforts to construct a more objective, detailed account of Tubman’s life for adults.[161] Several highly dramatized versions of Tubman’s life had been written for children, and many more came later, but Conrad wrote in an academic style to document the historical importance of her work for scholars and the nation’s memory.[168] The book was finally published by Carter G. Woodson’s Associated Publishers in 1942.[161] Despite her popularity and significance, another Tubman biography for adults did not appear for 60 years, until Jean Humez published a close reading of Tubman’s life stories in 2003, and Larson and Clinton both published their biographies in 2004.

Movies

See also

References

  1. Jump up to:a b “Harriet Tubman”PBS. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
  2. Jump up^ Lowry p. 180.
  3. Jump up^ Larson, p. 16.
  4. Jump up to:a b Humez, p. 12.
  5. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 4.
  6. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 5.
  7. Jump up to:a b c Larson, p. 10.
  8. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 6.
  9. Jump up^ Larson, p. 311-312.
  10. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 10
  11. Jump up^ Larson, p. 34.
  12. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 33.
  13. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 13.
  14. Jump up^ Humez, p. 14.
  15. Jump up^ Humez, p. 13.
  16. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 17–18.
  17. Jump up^ Larson, p. 40.
  18. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 19.
  19. Jump up^ Larson, p. 38.
  20. Jump up^ Larson, p. 56.
  21. Jump up^ Larson, p. 42.
  22. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 22.
  23. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 42–43.
  24. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 20.
  25. Jump up^ Larson, p. 47.
  26. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 23–24.
  27. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 28–29.
  28. Jump up to:a b c Larson, p. 62.
  29. Jump up^ Larson, p. 63.
  30. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 33.
  31. Jump up^ Larson, p. 72.
  32. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 31.
  33. Jump up^ Quoted in Bradford (1971), pp. 14–15.
  34. Jump up^ Larson, p. 73.
  35. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 31–32.
  36. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 74–77.
  37. Jump up^ Larson, p. 77.
  38. Jump up^ Quoted in Bradford (1961), p. 29.
  39. Jump up^ Larson, p. 78.
  40. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 78–79.
  41. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 80.
  42. Jump up to:a b Quoted in Bradford (1971), p. 19.
  43. Jump up^ Larson, p. 81.
  44. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 37.
  45. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 38.
  46. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 37–38.
  47. Jump up^ Larson, p. 83.
  48. Jump up^ Larson, p. 82.
  49. Jump up^ Quoted in Bradford (1971), p. 20. Emphasis in the original.
  50. Jump up^ Larson, p. 88.
  51. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 60.
  52. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 49–53.
  53. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 89–90.
  54. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 90.
  55. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 82.
  56. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 80.
  57. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 85.
  58. Jump up^ Larson, p. 134-135.
  59. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 90–91.
  60. Jump up to:a b c Larson, p. 239.
  61. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 84.
  62. Jump up^ Douglass, p. 266.
  63. Jump up^ Reprinted in Bradford (1961), pp. 134–135.
  64. Jump up^ Larson, p. xvii.
  65. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 85.
  66. Jump up^ Larson, p. 100.
  67. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 89.
  68. Jump up^ Larson, p. 125.
  69. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 91.
  70. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 91.
  71. Jump up^ Larson, p. 101.
  72. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 90–91.
  73. Jump up^ Quoted in Conrad, p. 14.
  74. Jump up^ Larson, p. 241.
  75. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p.131
  76. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 192.
  77. Jump up^ Larson, p. 119.
  78. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 143–144.
  79. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 129.
  80. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 158–159.
  81. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 126–128.
  82. Jump up^ Larson, p. 159.
  83. Jump up^ Larson, p. 161.
  84. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 161–166.
  85. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 132.
  86. Jump up^ Humez, p. 39.
  87. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 174.
  88. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 134–135.
  89. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 177.
  90. Jump up^ Larson, p. 163.
  91. Jump up to:a b c Clinton, p. 117.
  92. Jump up^ Larson, p. 197.
  93. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 119.
  94. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 197.
  95. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 121.
  96. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 198–199.
  97. Jump up^ Larson, p. 199.
  98. Jump up^ Larson, p. 202.
  99. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 147–149.
  100. Jump up^ Larson, p. 195.
  101. Jump up^ Larson, p. 204.
  102. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 205.
  103. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 206. Emphasis in the original.
  104. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 157.
  105. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 156–157.
  106. Jump up^ Larson, p. 209.
  107. Jump up^ Larson, p. 210.
  108. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 164.
  109. Jump up^ Larson, p. 212.
  110. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 165.
  111. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 213.
  112. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 166.
  113. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 167.
  114. Jump up^ Larson, p. 214.
  115. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 166.
  116. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 216.
  117. Jump up^ Larson, p. 216.
  118. Jump up^ Larson, p. 220.
  119. Jump up^ Quoted in Conrad, p. 40.
  120. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 186–187.
  121. Jump up^ Larson, p. 180.
  122. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 188.
  123. Jump up^ Larson, p. 232.
  124. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 193–195.
  125. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 225–226.
  126. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 193.
  127. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 278–279.
  128. Jump up^ Clinton, Catherine. “On the Road to Harriet Tubman“ American Heritage, June/July 2004.
  129. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 276–277.
  130. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 198.
  131. Jump up^ Larson, p. 260.
  132. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 196.
  133. Jump up^ Larson, p. 244.
  134. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 264–265.
  135. Jump up to:a b c Clinton, p. 201.
  136. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 255-256
  137. Jump up^ Larson, p. 256.
  138. Jump up^ Larson, pp. 257–259.
  139. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 202.
  140. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 202.
  141. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 191.
  142. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 192.
  143. Jump up^ Larson, p. 287.
  144. Jump up^ Larson, p. 273.
  145. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 275.
  146. Jump up^ Larson, p. 281.
  147. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 209.
  148. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 285.
  149. Jump up^ Clinton, pp. 209–210.
  150. Jump up^ Quoted in Larson, p. 282.
  151. Jump up^ Larson, p. 282.
  152. Jump up to:a b Larson, p. 288.
  153. Jump up^ Quoted in Clinton, p. 214.
  154. Jump up^ Larson, p. xv.
  155. Jump up^ Larson, p. xx.
  156. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 216.
  157. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 215.
  158. Jump up^ Clinton, p. 218.
  159. Jump up to:a b Clinton, p. 219.
  160. Jump up^ “National Register Information System”.National Register of Historic Places.National Park Service. 2009-03-13.
  161. Jump up to:a b c Larson, pp. 294.
  162. Jump up^ US Postal Service (February 21, 2002). “Postal Service Celebrates 25th Anniversary of Black Heritage Stamp Series“. Retrieved November 13, 2007.
  163. Jump up^ Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church, Directory of Designations of National Historic Significance of Canada
  164. Jump up^ Salem Chapel, British Methodist Episcopal Church, National Register of Historic Places
  165. Jump up^ Molefi Kete Asante (2002). 100 Greatest African Americans: A Biographical Encyclopedia. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1-57392-963-8.
  166. Jump up^ “Towson University 2009 Campus Master Plan”. p. 5.
  167. Jump up^ “Obama to sign off on Tubman monument on Maryland’s Eastern Shore”.
  168. Jump up^ Larson, p. 290.

Sources

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